"If My people who are called by My name will humble themselves, and pray and seek My face, and turn from their wicked ways, then I will hear from heaven, and will forgive their sin and heal their land." -
II Chronicles 7:14
    Moon Hebrew Calendar

    Note: Scriptures are quoted in blue.



    When Should The First Month Of The Year Start?
    adapted from an article by Frank Nelte

    One important question in this whole discussion about the calendar is, exactly when should the year start? Must it always start in the spring? Can it sometimes or even always start in the winter? The Jews do call the Day of Trumpets "New Year." Since the Day of Trumpets is sometimes in the summer and sometimes in the autumn, does this mean that the year can start either in the summer or in the autumn? Exactly what does the Scripture reveal about the start of the year?

    The Basic Scripture

    When ETERNAL was ready to lead Israel out of Egypt through Moses, we read the following instruction:
    Ex 12:1-2 (NRSV) "YHWH said to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt: 'This month shall mark for you the beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year for you.'"

    Thus, we have, at the time of Moses, a very clear statement from The Mighty One that He wants the year to start with a specific month (or moon)! The Hebrew expression translated into English, as "THIS MONTH" is "ha-chodesh ha-zeh." The word "zeh" is a demonstrative pronoun meaning "this" or "this one." This demonstrative pronoun makes quite clear that The Mighty One is specifically singling something out. It is not just the definite article (as in "the month") that is used here, but it is a specific reference to "THIS VERY MONTH."

    Next, the word 1 "chodesh" means BOTH, "new moon" and it also means "month." The reason is that ETERNAL intended every month to start with "a new moon." So it is perfectly correct to translate Exodus 12:2 in two possible ways:
    First, as it is stated in the KJV, which also happens to be identical to the JPS?
    Ex 12:2 KJV "This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you.
    Second, as it could be rendered below:
    Ex 12:2 "THIS NEW MOON, the first full moon after the barley is green, shall be unto you the beginning of New Months (or New Months): it shall be the FIRST NEW, FULL MOON of the year to you."

    The key is to remember that in Scriptural Hebrew there simply is no distinction made between the concepts of "New Moons" and "New Months" since "a lunar month begins at the new moon." So it is equally correct to say that in Exodus 12:2 the Mighty One was specifically singling out two things: this "New Moon" and it means also This Month! The Hebrew word "chodesh" simply does not allow you to divorce "the new moon" from "the month." They go together. A month is only a month BECAUSE it starts on the New Full Moon!

    So when we have a clear statement from ETERNAL that this new moon is to be the first new moon of the year to us, then we obviously have a very clear responsibility to determine exactly when CREATOR wants that New Moon to occur! We cannot pass this responsibility off to other people (such as the Jews) by reasoning: well, it is really up to ETERNAL to make sure that these other people (i.e. the Jews) pick the right New Moon for us.

    CREATOR listed the weekly Sabbath days right alongside the annual Sabbath days in Leviticus Chapter 23. The one group is as important as the other is. We would not dream of allowing someone else to determine for us which day of the week we should keep as the Sabbath day. Just because the Jews happen to identify the weekly Sabbath day correctly, this does not mean that we did not check up on them, TO MAKE SURE that their claim that Saturday is the Sabbath is in fact correct. We have carefully examined historical records 2 to make quite sure that the Jewish claim for Saturday, as the weekly Sabbath is correct. We certainly did not just accept "on faith" that the Jews have gotten the weekly Sabbath right. We thoroughly verified this against all the facts that we have to which we have access. After having made such a thorough investigation, it is certainly nice to have been able to reach the conclusion that regarding the weekly Sabbath the Jews ARE indeed right. We know they are right BECAUSE we have checked up on the facts, not because we somehow trust the Jews "on faith."

    In the same way we also need to check up and make sure that the Jews faithfully abide by ETERNAL's instructions in Exodus 12:2 that "THIS NEW MOON" IS ALWAYS THE FIRST NEW MOON OF THE YEAR TO US." That is not something our CREATOR would want us to accept "on faith" without making the effort to verify the facts, as crescent or dark moon advocates are wrong.

    By the very fact that "the New Moon" and "the New Month" are exactly the same word in Hebrew, means the following that the first Full (New) Moon after the barley is green is the moon of "THIS VERY MONTH" from above. Since the Hebrew word "chodesh" simply does not allow you to divorce "the New Month" from "the New Full Moon." Let us look for further clues in the Scripture that will show us exactly, which "this New Moon" and "this New Month" The Mighty One wants us to observe.

    The Name of "This New Full Moon"

    The New Month and New Full Moon, YHWH was singling out in Exodus 12:2, is actually named three times in the Book of Exodus and once in Deuteronomy. It is called by the Hebrew name "Abib." For example:
    Ex 23:15 (AV) "Thou shalt keep the feast of unleavened bread: (thou shalt eat unleavened bread seven days, as I commanded thee, in the time appointed of the month Abib; for in it thou camest out from Egypt: and none shall appear before me empty)."
    The other three verses where the name "Abib" is used are: Exodus 13:4, 34:18, and Deuteronomy 16:1.

    The word English word "Abib" comes from the Hebrew word 3 "'abiyb" and "means to be tender green." This means that The Mighty One identifies "THIS NEW FULL MOON" as being equated with the then "tender green barley sprouts". 4

    To summarize, it is quite clear that the name "Abib" means It is equally clear from the quotations [of FN. 4] that the greatest of people have repeatedly stated that the year BEGINS IN THE SPRING. Now let us look at some facts about the present Jewish calendar.

    Facts about the Present Jewish Calendar

    The Jewish calendar falls into a pattern of "19-year cycles;" (i.e. every 19 years the dates for Feast Days basically repeat themselves, with a gradual shift of everything going to 1 day later in the seasons for every 216 year or about 9 days later in the seasons for every 2000 years).

    So now let us examine in which season the present Jewish calendar has started the year. First, let us examine the time, when Hillel II instituted this fixed calendar, then let's look at some of the 19-year cycles in our age:
    According to the present Jewish calendar:
    Cycle #217 was 344 - 362 CE
    Cycle #218 was 363 - 381 CE
    Cycle #219 was 382 - 400 CE
    Cycle #303 was 1978 - 1996 CE
    Cycle #304 will be 1997 - 2015 CE

    Now keep in mind that the Jewish postponement rules, when they come into effect, always place the start of the year one-day or two days LATER in the seasons. Therefore, without these postponement rules some years might start one day or two days earlier. This becomes especially important when without the postponement rules the year might be placed to start on the last day of winter, but with the postponement rules it then starts on the first day of spring--thus making it look better. But keep in mind that the reasoning underlying the postponement rules has absolutely nothing to do with wanting the year to start in the right season--they are purely concerned with THE DAY OF THE WEEK, wanting to avoid "awkward days" for Atonement, etc.

    The footnoted data 5 demonstrates clearly, how the passage of over 1600 years (i.e. from cycle #217 to cycle #303) has placed all the Feast Days in the year from 7-8 days later in the seasons. The result is that after these 1600 years since the time of Hillel II, today ONLY FIVE YEARS start in the winter.

    I suppose "the good news" is that in another 1800 years EVERY YEAR WILL START IN THE SPRING--except for the occasional year when "no postponements" still cause a year to start on the last day of winter (e.g. 3742 AD and 3856 AD) though all other years in between those two years are scheduled to start in the spring. However, "the bad news" is that very few amongst us are likely to have 1800 years available for waiting for that to be the case!

    Anyway, let us get back to examining the above facts. When Hillel II instituted his fixed calendar, he placed OVER HALF of the years to start in the winter (10 out of every 19 years). He caused the year to start more often in the winter than in the spring! Clearly, this is something the people 6 who wrote the quotations I presented earlier did not know!

    Even today the Jewish calendar still starts more than one in four years in the winter--and that is with the postponements being applied; without postponements it would at times be 6 years out of 19 years that would still start in the winter.

    Let us now analyze the data we have seen. What was ETERNAL's real intention when He told Israel? [a pharaphase of Ex 5:2]
    "This 'Chodesh' (New Full Moon) Which I Want You To Identify As 'Abib', (i.e. As Tender Green Sprouts) Is To Be The First 'Chodesh' (First New Full Moon) Of The Year To You"

    What did The Mighty One mean? The answer, for you, to this question depends on your attitude IF you approach this question totally on its own merits, following Scriptural statements then you, along with the authors mentioned in the Footnotes, will reach the answer that the first month of the year must start in the early part of spring, as determined by the barley and not the equinox!

    However, IF you approach this question from a preconceived position of having to defend the present Jewish calendar at all costs--then you will argue that "it's okay with YHWH as long as, at least the Passover is in the spring." You will not be approaching this question on its own merits. No, you will INTERPRET The Mighty One's instructions to fit in with whatever the Jews have done with their calendar and you will overlook that Hillel II placed EVEN THE PASSOVER INTO WINTER 7 FOR THERE YEARS IN EVERY 19 YEARS!

    IF you approach this question with the desire to defend the present Jewish calendar, then you will overlook that for a period of 500 years Hillel II placed the Passover into winter in a repeating pattern of years. You will accept this although you yourself today, would be totally unwilling ever, to keep the Passover in the winter. You will overlook that it took over 500 years for just this one major flaw "to work itself out of the system!"

    So back to our question, What really was YHWH desire and intention when HE said:
    Ex 5:2 "THIS MONTH and THIS NEW FULL MOON shall be the first month and THE FIRST NEW FULL MOON of the year to you?"

    Did ETERNAL mean what He said, or did He really mean, "It's okay by Me as long as you have at least SOME years starting in the spring?" Is ETERNAL aware of the fact that there are four distinct seasons in the year?     Did HE have anything to do with instituting those four seasons? Does He want certain things to take place in certain seasons? WHY did The Mighty One tell them that a specific New Full Moon was to be known as "green sprouts of grain?" Is our CREATOR CONSISTENT, or will He leave things up to chance--sometimes having the year start in one season and sometimes having it start in the other season? What really is His will in this regard? I think you can see the true answer.

    All of the early authors, mentioned in the Footnotes, came to exactly the same conclusions when they examined the relevant Scriptures--THAT YHWH WANTS THE YEAR TO START IN THE EARLY SPRING! As long as they did not feel the pressure to defend a certain position, they always reached this same conclusion!

    [Editor's Note: The fact that WCOG and their break-way COG authors did bow to the pressure and compromise what the Hebrew Scriptures plainly state is the reason their literature is not dependable.]

    It is only AFTER they realized that the present Jewish calendar actually does not comply with the Scriptural requirement, that they changed their explanations. They interpreted the Scriptures to accommodate the Jewish violations of the PLAIN, OBVIOUS, AND INDISPUTABLE INTENT BY ETERNAL for the year to start in the spring!

    [Editor's Note: The fact that WCOG and their break-way COG authors did bow to the pressure and compromise what the Hebrew Scriptures plainly state is the reason their literature is not dependable.]

    How Do We Know When Spring Is Supposed To Start?

    Let us look at one of "the arguments" people present to justify the present Jewish calendar. One of the corniest arguments I have heard the following used in an attempt to justify the present Jewish calendar transgressing clear Scriptural instructions, it goes as follows:
    "How do you know when autumn starts and when spring starts? In our area (e.g. anywhere in the Northern Hemisphere), winter starts by the end of November. We even sometimes have snow before the end of the Feast of Tabernacles. In addition, we sometimes still have snow by the beginning of April; so, for us spring starts far later than March 21. And what about the seasons being reversed in the Southern Hemisphere etc., ad infinitum?"

    My reply to this is "Who has made YOU the judge of when the seasons start and end. Are we going to look at what is right in YOUR eyes (e.g. Judges 21:25) or are we going to establish what is right in The Mighty One's eyes (e.g. Isaiah 55:8)?

    Where do you get the idea from that the start of the season of winter is determined by "when it gets cold in your area?" Is it all of a sudden the season of winter because some part of the state of Oregon had an unexpected snow blizzard in August? Is it all of a sudden the season of summer because there is some unexpected hot weather in February in Texas? The temperatures that may prevail in certain areas do not determine the seasons.

    The cause for the seasons is the tilt of the Earth's axis. This tilt is about 23.5° from the vertical. Without this tilt, we would not have any seasons. The Earth's revolution around the sun every year, combined with this tilt of 23.5° from the vertical that produces our four seasons. Since this is the cause for the four seasons, it follows that some specific point must mark the start of each of those four seasons in the Earth's annual revolution around the sun. This is independent of whether YOUR particular area may have snow or a heat wave at those specific points in the Earth's journey around the sun.

    For example, Webster's Dictionary defines the four seasons as follows:

    • Spring: the season between winter and summer comprising in the Northern Hemisphere, usually the months of March, April and May or as reckoned astronomically extending from the March equinox to the June solstice.

    • Summer: the season between spring and autumn comprising in the Northern Hemisphere, usually the months of June, July, and August or as reckoned astronomically extending from the June solstice to the September equinox.

    • Autumn: the season between summer and winter comprising in the Northern Hemisphere, usually the months of September, October, and November or as reckoned astronomically extending from the September equinox to the December solstice.

    • Winter: the season between autumn and spring comprising in the Northern Hemisphere usually, the months of December, January, and February or as reckoned astronomically extending from the December solstice to the March equinox.
    The seasons are determined not by how hot or cold it is on any given day--that, is "weather patterns." The seasons are determined by the precise position of the Earth in its path around the sun. The seasons all start, as Webster's Dictionary also makes clear, either at an equinox or at a solstice. However, the first day, of the first of the month of the year is not equinox dependant. It totally depends on the "green tender barley" and the next "New Full Moon" after the "green barley."

    These definitions for "the seasons" are well recognized in our modern world. However, it goes much further than this. After all, we are not really looking for how the seasons may be defined by Webster in today's parlance, for our context. We are really looking for how ETERNAL wants us to define the seasons, right? Remember Isaiah 55:8--we want to know ETERNAL's thoughts, right? So, let us see what The Mighty One tells us.

    How the Seasons Are Defined In the Scripture

    It is a waste of time to argue about "this is what spring means to me--and this is how I understand autumn" etc. Let us see what the Scripture has to tell us. Let's look again at Exodus 34:22:
    Ex 34:22 (AV) "And thou shalt observe the feast of weeks, of the firstfruits of wheat harvest, and the feast of Ingathering at the year's end" {year's end: Heb. revolution of the year}

    The expression English here translated as "at the end of the year" is from the Hebrew "at the `tekufah' of the year. This word 8 "tekufah" refers to, "a coming round, a circuit, a turning point, etc." It is formed from the Hebrew verb 9 "naqaph," which means: to go around, to compass about, etc.

    So back to Exodus 34:22. It is well known that even in antiquity people were familiar with the two solstices and the two equinoxes in every year. They could be pinpointed by the movements of a shadow 10 in the course of a year. At the two solstices, there are distinct turnings, the movements of the shadows change direction.

    What "spring" and "autumn" may mean to you or to me is not important one way or the other. Nor does the area where we live (in a cold climate like the northern United States or a hot climate like the Middle East) make a difference to these definitions for the seasons. Nor does it make a difference as to whether we live in the Northern Hemisphere or whether we live in the Southern Hemisphere. All that matters is what ETERNAL said, and that is what He intended.

    It is quite clear that:

    1. ETERNAL was speaking about a specific New Full Moon in the year, by using the expression "THIS New Full Moon" (or "THIS New Month").
    2. Our SOVEREIGN was speaking to the people of Israel in a specific geographic location, the Middle East.
    3. For the people ETERNAL was speaking to, in that specific part of the world (i.e. the people of Israel), He identified that the New Full Moon with the name "green tender sprouts of the grain," an obvious reference to the season of spring. This does not mean that "that specific New Moon" has to be the time of the "green sprouts of grain" for other parts of the world (e.g. Finland, Norway, Alaska, Chile, Australia, South Africa, etc.).
    4. In Exodus 34:22, ETERNAL identified "the season of autumn" by a clear reference The Feast of Ingathering and to the autumn equinox, one of the four "turning points" in the year.
    5. Whether in your part of the world, "this New Full Moon of Abib" also happens to be "the time of green tender ears of grain" or not, is immaterial. "THIS NEW FULL MOON" is to be "the first month of the year." Whether you choose to live in the North such as Scandinavia or Canada; or whether you choose to move further south in Southern Africa or Australia. "THIS NEW FULL MOON" is to remain "the first New Full Moon of the year."
    6. ETERNAL does not expect us to accept "on faith" that the Jews still have the Sabbath on the seventh day of the week. This is something ETERNAL expects us to prove and to verify! Likewise, ETERNAL expects us to prove whether the Jewish calendar is in full compliance with His COMMAND that "THIS is the "THIS NEW FULL MOON" of the year
    7. A lack of compliance with The Mighty One's Commands should NEVER be overlooked! If something goes against YHWH's clearly stated Commands then we must obey ETERNAL rather than adhere to human traditions.
    8. The fact that 14 years in every 19-year cycle of the present Jewish calendar start in the spring, while 5 years in every cycle still start in the winter, is an inconsistency! Such an inconsistency implies that it does not really matter in which season the year starts.

    In Conclusion [Mr. Nelty's]

    There can be no doubt that ETERNAL intended "THIS NEW MOON" to be in the spring of the Northern Hemisphere. This is also apparent from the name "Abib." This is also the conclusion that ALL of the writers in the Church [WCOG] came to as long as they did not perceive the need to defend a certain position. The fact that Hillel II started over 50% of all years in the winter and that he even placed the Passover repeatedly into winter should be a real shocker for most people who are desirous of obeying "God's" instructions for the calendar.

    So when should the year start?
    The New Moon for the first month of the year must be at or after the spring equinox! If a new moon occurs one day before the spring equinox (i.e. on the last day of winter) then the following new moon will be the first new moon of spring and that new moon will have to be the start of the first month. That is what ETERNAL intended in Exodus 12:2.

          Frank W. Nelte, Date: February 2000

    In Conclusion [Editor's]

    The author presented a solid case for the year beginning on the first New Full Moon after the barley is in the young, tender, green stage. It is sad that after doing that, the author copped out and yielded to the pressure (as others in WCOG and Protestant churches as well as most Jewish calendars have over the years) and said that the year's first moon is dependent on the equinox and not the stage of the barley in or around Jerusalem. He did that even after stating "Are we going to look at what is right in YOUR eyes (e.g. Judges 21:25) or are we going to establish what is right in The Mighty One's eyes (e.g. Isaiah 55:8)?

    There can be no doubt that ETERNAL intended "this New Full Moon of Abib" to be in the spring of the Northern Hemisphere. This is also apparent from its name "Abib." The equinox and the "spring" of the year are not used to determine which moon is to be the "Abib Moon" but only to indicate that it is in the spring.


    So when should the year start?

    THE FULL NEW MOON for the first month of the year must be after the barley is in the tender young green sprout stage--or Abib stage. If a Full New Moon occurs one day before the Abib stage of the barley then the following FULL YELLOW NEW MOON will be the first FULL New Moon of the year and that FULL New Moon will be the start of the first month. The "Abib Moon" is totally dependent upon the barley and NOT ON the equinox. That is what the Righteous One of Israel has so plainly stated in Exodus 12:2 and other Scriptures.

           Charles J. Voss, Update: April 2002


    [ Hope of Israel index page ]



    Up1. Strong's #H2320 "chodesh" (kho'-desh) from #H2318; the new moon; by implication a month. Gesenius' adds "a lunar month beginning as the new moon."

    Strong's #H2318 "chadash" {(khaw-dash') a primary root; to be new; causative to rebuild.} When is a house considered "new"? When the foundation is laid or when the contractor gives you the key and says, "this very house is your new house?" The same is true for the moon, when is it a new moon, which starts a new month? When the crescent foundation is laid or when the ETERNAL Contractor says, "this very Full Moon is the beginning of your New Year."

    Up 2. See our Associated Article "Has Hebrew Time Been Lost?"

    Up 3. Strong's #H24 (aw-beeb') from an unused root (mean to be tender); green.

    Up 4.

    1. Ambassador College Bible Correspondence Course, Lesson 34 (1965, 1969): "Abib means, `the time of green sprouts of grain.'"
    2. The Plain Truth, December 1964 "The Truth About New Year's!" by William H. Ellis. "The first month of G-d's sacred calendar is called, in the Scripture, "Abib." It means the month of "tender green sprouts." Later, the Jews called it "Nisan" which is a Babylonian name for one of their gods."
    3. Good News June 1961 Vol. X, Number 6, article "The TRUE Reason WHY the Jews Rejected Chr-st" by Herman L. Hoeh. "Also, J-sus and the Galileans observed Passover on Nisan 14, the correct day. The Jews in Judea celebrated it one day late, on the night of the Feast, the 15th of Nisan or Abib. Today the Jews do not really keep any Passover. They observe only the Feast. This is the real reason why the Jews as a nation forgot their G-d!" Notice Dr. Hoeh's clear admission that "TODAY THE JEWS DO NOT REALLY KEEP ANY PASSOVER!"
      Editor's Comment: This quotation has nothing to do with when the month Abib is to start, but the unequivocal admission that the Jews today don't really keep ANY kind of correct Passover was too good to pass up when I came across it. Keep this in mind when some people want to convince you that the Passover should be at the end of the 14th.
    4. Good News November 1957 Vol. VI, Number 11 article "Why AMERICA Is Cursed!" by Herbert W. Armstrong. "People today don't even know what the month "Abib" is, much less when it is. It is G-d's first month of the year, but it is not the same as the pagan January. It begins in the spring, when new life is budding forth in nature. But the nation has deserted [the Hebrew] calendar, and accepted the pagan calendar." Notice Mr. Armstrong's statement that Abib "BEGINS IN THE SPRING!"
    5. PERSONAL CORRESPONDENCE DEPARTMENT, Letter 013 "The true `SACRED' year of the Scripture begins with the month of Nisan (also called Abib), in the spring (Ex. 12:2). The sacred year portrays G-d's great plan." Notice again the statement that "the true sacred year BEGINS ... IN THE SPRING."
    6. MYSTERY OF THE AGES, by Herbert W. Armstrong, 1985 Hardbound Edition. "The final plague followed the sacrifice of the Passover on the 14th day of the first month of G-d's sacred calendar--starting in the spring. The Israelites went out of Egypt during the night part of the 15th, they reached the Red Sea." Notice again Mr. Armstrong's comment that the first month of "G-d's sacred calendar" STARTS IN THE SPRING.
    7. Pagan Holidays -- or "God's" Holy Days -- Which? by Herbert W. Armstrong, 1976 edition, "And so, on delivering His people from Egypt (sin), G-d straightened them out as to time ...and said, "This month [in the spring] shall be unto you the beginning of months" (Ex. 12:2).
    8. The Bible Story, Volume 5 1987. "Today many churches have summer "camp meetings" instead of observing the Festival of Tabernacles in the fall. They keep Easter instead of Passover, Whitsunday instead of Pentecost. They celebrate the beginning of a new year in the winter, whereas G-d tells us that the NEW YEAR BEGINS IN THE SPRING."
    9. Ambassador College Bible Correspondence Course, Lesson 33 (1964, 1965, 1969) "GOLGOTHA -- the Place of the Skull." "They were forced to work seven days a week and to adapt themselves to the Egyptian calendar and holidays. Therefore, G-d had to reveal that the month of Abib--the first month in the spring of [the Hebrew] Calendar--was to be the BEGINNING of the sacred year."
    10. Good News March 1953 article "G-d's Sacred Calendar" by Kenneth C. Herrmann, page 8, column I. "The first day of this month [he is speaking about Abib]--which occurs at the beginning of spring--then would be the first day of the year."

    Up5. Here are the facts:

    According to the present Jewish calendar:
    1) For cycle #217
    (344 to 362 CE)
    TEN YEARS STARTED IN THE WINTER! They were the years: 346, 348, 349, 351, 354, 356, 357, 359, 360, and 362.
    2) For cycle #218
    (363 to 381 CE)
    TEN YEARS STARTED IN THE WINTER! They were the years: 365, 367, 368, 370, 373, 375, 376, 378, 379, and 381.
    3) For cycle #219
    (382 to 400CE)
    TEN YEARS STARTED IN THE WINTER! They were the years: 384, 386, 387, 389, 392, 394, 395, 397, 398, and 400.
    4) For cycle #303
    (1978 to 1996 CE)
    FIVE YEARS STARTED IN THE WINTER! They were the years: 1980, 1983, 1988, 1991, and 1994.
    5) For cycle #304
    (1997 to 2015 CE)
    FIVE YEARS ARE SCHEDULED TO START IN THE WINTER! They are the years: 1999, 2002, 2007, 2010, and 2013.

    Up6. i.e. Mr. Herbert W. Armstrong, Kenneth Herrmann; the authors of the Correspondence Course, the Bible Story, and the PCD letter, etc.) Would Mr. Armstrong really have said: "Abib begins IN THE SPRING" if he had known that over 50% of the time it actually started IN THE WINTER when Hillel II first instituted it? Would Mr. Armstrong have said this if he had grasped that even TODAY Abib still starts in the winter over 25% of the time on the Jewish Calendar?

    Up 7. In cycle #218 this was in the years: 368 = March 19, 376 = March 20, 379 = March 18. Even as late as 854 AD (when the equinox was on March 17) Hillel's fixed calendar STILL PLACED THE PASSOVER INTO WINTER (i.e. on March 16)!

    Up 8. Strong's #H8622 "tequwphah" (tek-oo-faw') from H5362; a revolution.

    Up 9. Strong's #H5362 "naqaph" (naw-kaf') a primary root; to strike with more or less violence; by implication (of attack) to knock together, i.e. surround or circulate.

    Up 10. Note the positions of the shadow at sunrise and at sunset for every day of the year.