If I shut up the heavens and there is no rain; if I command the locusts to ravage the land; or if I let loose pestilence against My people, when My people, who bear My name, humble themselves, pray, and seek My favor and turn from their evil ways, then I will hear in My heavenly abode and forgive their sins and heal their land. II Chronicles 7:13-14
The Calendar article did not cover Pesach and Days of
Unleavened Bread in detail so it will be covered here.
This article will cover the timing of events that happen during the seven days of Unleavened Bread which are the Spring Festival Days. The first thing to note is the meaning of the Hebrew word "Pesach" normally translated into English as "Passover.” Notice in Scripture:
Leviticus 23:5 (JPS). 1 In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at dusk, is ETERNAL's Passover (#H6453).
The English word "Passover" comes from the Hebrew word "pecach" which in common English usage is "Pesach" and is pronounced peh'sakh. Gesenius' 2 states that #H6453 means: "a sparing, immunity from penalty or calamity.” It comes from the root word #H6452 which means: "to pass over, to spare.” Since the Egyptians were not spared or protected, all their firstborn of man and beast were killed. However, the firstborn of the Hebrews were spared and were protected from the sting of death when ETERNAL passed through the land (Exodus 12:12). Thus, the night that is typically called "Passover" is actually the "Night of Protection.”
I would rather say the "Night of Protection" rather than "Passover Night" since Passover is connected in Strong's 3 to the word "victim" and this, incorrectly, opens the door to the "passover lamb" of the church in Rome.
By referring to the "Jewish Passover," Dr. Strong is relating to the meaning of the word "Pesach" that is used in modern churchanity, whereas Dr. Gesenius is using the original Hebrew meaning. Furthermore, since it is Scripturally unlawful to have a Pascal Sacrifice today while there is no Temple, remembering the night as Passover seems out of place. The night when ETERNAL went through the land to protect His chosen people was indeed a night of protection. Since ETERNAL does not have a specific name for that special event, it seems that it be should be called the "Night of Protection" instead of "Passover" especially since "Pesach" means "to pass over, to spare, a sparing, immunity from penalty or calamity.”
The written Hebrew does not contain chapter and verse breaks; they were later added to an English text by a Monk of the church of Rome. Since the midnight monk obviously did not refer to the Hebrew, this adds unnecessary confusion to reading the Scriptures. In the next set of Scriptures in Exodus this produced a run-on effect as if all eight (8) of these verses occurred together. Carefully read the first set of Scriptures:
Exodus 12:12-14. For I will go through the land of Egypt in that night [14th], and will smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgments: I am ETERNAL. And the blood shall be to you for a token upon the houses where ye are; and when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and there shall no plague be upon you to destroy you, when I smite the land of Egypt. And this day [the 14th] shall be unto you for a memorial, and ye shall keep it a Feast to ETERNAL; throughout your generations ye shall keep it a feast by an ordinance for ever.
...12:15. Seven days shall ye eat unleavened bread; howbeit the first day ye shall put away leaven out of your houses; for whosoever eateth leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that soul shall be cut off from Israel.
...12:16-17. And in the first day there shall be to you a holy [set-apart] convocation, and in the seventh day a holy [set-apart] convocation; no manner of work shall be done in them, save that which every man must eat, that only may be done by you. 17 And ye shall observe the Feast of Unleavened Bread; for in this self same day have I brought your hosts out of the land of Egypt; therefore, shall ye observe this day throughout your generations by an ordinance for ever.
...12:18. In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at even, ye shall eat unleavened bread, until the one and twentieth day of the month at even. 19 Seven days shall there be no leaven found in your houses; for whosoever eateth that which is leavened, that soul shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he be a sojourner or one that is born in the land. 20 Ye shall eat nothing leavened; in all your habitations shall ye eat unleavened bread. 21 Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel, and said unto them: "Draw out, and take you lambs according to your families, and kill the [Pascal] lamb" [on this day the 14th].
Do you see the problem? It appears these verses are full of contradictions. They state that for seven days unleavened bread shall be eaten. Then they state that the 1st and 7th are commanded assemblies (holy convocations) in which no work is to be done. Yet, by the first (1st) day we have to rid our homes of leaven and that is work. Note that the days of unleavened bread last UNTIL the 21st day. That is at the beginning of the 21st and not the end of the 21st, therefore, the 21st is not part of the Days of Unleavened Bread. Not to worry, our CREATOR fully explains these apparent contradictions. The next set of Scriptures states:
Exodus 13:6-7. Seven days thou shalt eat unleavened bread, and in the seventh day shall be a feast to ETERNAL. Unleavened bread shall be eaten throughout the seven days; and there shall no leavened bread be seen with thee, neither shall there be leaven seen with thee in all thy borders.
These all agree that unleavened bread is eaten for seven days and the 7th day is a Commanded Assembly (holy convocation). Nothing is mentioned about a lamb or the first day of the Days of Unleavened Bread. The next scripture states:
Exodus 34:18. The feast of unleavened bread shalt thou keep. Seven days thou shalt eat unleavened bread, as I commanded thee, at the time appointed in the month Abib, for in the month Abib thou camest out from Egypt.”
This Scripture makes two points:
1. The Feast of Unleavened Bread shall be kept.
2. There are seven days that unleavened bread shall be eaten.
There is no mention of the time span for the Feast of Unleavened Bread; it only states that unleavened bread is to be eaten for seven days! We must remember that the written Hebrew does not contain chapter and verse breaks. They were added later to an English text by a Monk of the church in Rome. Since the midnight monk probably did not know Hebrew, it added unnecessary confusion to reading the Scriptures.
In the next set of Scriptures in Leviticus, this also produced a run-on effect as if all four of these verses occurred together, whereas, in actuality, they cover a seven (7) day period.
Leviticus 23:4-8. These are the appointed seasons of ETERNAL, even holy convocations, which ye shall proclaim in their appointed season. 5 In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at dusk, is ETERNAL's Pesach. 6
...23:6-7. And on the fifteenth day of the same month is the Feast of Unleavened Bread unto ETERNAL; seven days ye shall eat unleavened bread. In the first day (of the Feast of Unleavened Bread) ye shall have a holy convocation [commanded assembly]; ye shall do no manner of servile work.
...23:8. And ye shall bring an offering made by fire unto ETERNAL seven days; in the seventh day is a holy convocation [commanded assembly]; ye shall do no manner of servile work.
There is a lot of confusion over which day the Hebrews left Egypt; was it on the 14th or the 15th? This confusion is partially due to the chapter verse breaks. However, the answer is plainly stated in the following verses. These verses clearly show that the Night of Protection is on the fourteenth and the First Day of Unleavened Bread is on the fifteenth.
Numbers 33:1-4. These are the stages of the Children of Israel, by which they went forth out of the land of Egypt by their hosts under the hand of Moses and Aaron. And Moses wrote their goings forth, stage by stage, by the commandment of ETERNAL; and these are their stages at their goings forth. And they journeyed from Rameses in the first month, on the fifteenth day of the first month; on the morrow [#H4283] after the Passover [Pesach] the Children of Israel went out with a high hand in the sight of all the Egyptians, while the Egyptians were burying [their dead].
The English word "morrow" comes from the Hebrew word "mochorath.” Strong's states that, "#H4283 is the feminine form from #H4279; the morrow or tomorrow. For #H4279 "machar, i.e. the morrow, usually (adverb) tomorrow; (indefinitely) hereafter.” In addition, Gesenius states that the Hebrew form of the word used in Numbers 33:3 (and other verses he lists) means not just the "morrow" but the "morrow of that day.” Thus, it seems obvious that if Pesach comes on the fourteenth, then the "morrow of that day" is the fifteenth. The fifteenth which begins at sunset (at the end of the daylight portion of the fourteenth) is the "morrow of that daylight portion of the Pesach" therefore that is the time that they left Egypt.
These days were kept correctly in the past and they will be kept correctly in the future, at the new Third Temple in the upcoming Third Temple era. Notice how the Prince, King David, and the Priest/Prophet, Elijah, will work together in harmony, not just for Pesach and Unleavened Bread but for all of the Festival Days.
Ezekiel 45:16-17 (NIV). All the people of the land will participate in this special gift for the use of the prince in Israel. It will be the duty of the prince to provide the burnt offerings, grain offerings and drink offerings at the festivals, the New Moons and the Sabbaths--at all the appointed feasts of the House of Israel. He will provide the sin offerings, grain offerings, burnt offerings and fellowship offerings to make atonement for the House of Israel.
...45:18-19. This is what the Sovereign ETERNAL says: “In the first month on the first day you are to take a young bull without defect and purify the sanctuary. The priest is to take some of the blood of the sin offering and put it on the doorposts of the Temple, on the four corners of the upper ledge of the altar and on the gateposts of the inner court.”
Returning to the theme of the Pesach and Unleavened Bread and we see that Pesach is the first day of a seven-day period.
Ezekiel 45:21-24 (Tanakh). On the fourteenth day of the same month, you shall celebrate the Passover [Pesach]. It will be a seven-day feast. Only bread without yeast shall be eaten during those days. On the day of [Pesach] the prince shall provide a young bull for a sin offering for himself and all the people of Israel. On each of the seven days of the feast he shall prepare a burnt offering to ETERNAL. This daily offering will consist of seven young bulls and seven rams without blemish. A male goat shall also be given each day for a sin offering. And the prince shall provide one half bushel of grain with each bullock and ram for a meal offering, and three quarts of olive oil.
On the surface these Scriptures also seem to contradict the others we have seen. All together the verses tell us that the first Day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread is on the fifteenth and that all of the Children of Israel shall eat Unleavened Bread for seven days. Nevertheless, in Exodus 12 note that verse 18 states:
Exodus 12:18. In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at even, ye shall eat unleavened bread, until the one and twentieth day of the month at even.”
Webster's says the word "until" means "up to the time of" or "before some event.” Thus, verse fourteen (14) is stating that unleavened bread is eaten from sunset (the beginning of the 14th) until sunset on the 20th (the beginning of the 21st) and that is seven (7) full days. However, the 14th is the "Night of Protection" (Pesach) and you will have completed the work of removing leavening from your premises. Did the CREATOR get confused? Did He allow error to invade His Hebrew Scriptures? Alternatively, do we just need to be diligent and search the Scriptures for it's rightful meaning?
The next round of Scriptures, will clear up these apparent contradictions, and show that the "Feast of Unleavened Bread" is only six (6) of the seven (7) "days of unleavened bread.”
Deuteronomy 16:1-8. Observe the month of Abib, and keep the (Pesach) unto ETERNAL thy SOVEREIGN; for in the month of Abib ETERNAL thy SOVEREIGN brought thee forth out of Egypt by night. And thou shalt sacrifice the (Pesach) offering unto ETERNAL thy SOVEREIGN, of the flock and the herd, in the place which ETERNAL shall choose to cause His Name to dwell there. Thou shalt eat no leavened bread with it; seven days shalt thou eat unleavened bread therewith, even the bread of affliction; for in haste didst thou come forth out of the land of Egypt; that thou mayest remember the day when thou camest forth out of the land of Egypt all the days of thy life.
...4 And there shall be no leaven seen with thee in all thy borders seven days; neither shall any of the flesh, which thou sacrificest the first day at even, remain all night until the morning. Thou mayest not sacrifice the (Pesach) offering within any of thy gates, which ETERNAL CREATOR giveth thee; but at the place which ETERNAL CREATOR shall choose to cause His name to dwell in, there thou shalt sacrifice the (Pesach) offering at even, at the going down of the sun, at the season that thou camest forth out of Egypt. And thou shalt roast and eat it in the place which ETERNAL CREATOR shall choose; and thou shalt turn in the morning, and go unto thy tents. 5 Six days thou shalt eat unleavened bread; and on the seventh day shall be a solemn assembly to ETERNAL CREATOR thou shalt do no work therein.
First Recap of What We Have Said
On another note, contrary to the movie "The Ten Commandments," Moses did not go to Pharaoh during the Night of Protection. Pharaoh previously told Moses that the next time he saw Moses' face that Moses would die. Notice that in Scripture:
Exodus 10:22-29. ...There was a thick darkness in all the land of Egypt... 24. And Pharaoh called unto Moses, and said: "Go ye, serve ETERNAL; ...27 But ETERNAL hardened Pharaoh's heart ...28 And Pharaoh said unto him: "Get thee from me, take heed to thyself, see my face no more; for in the day thou seest my face thou shalt die.” ...29 And Moses said: "Thou hast spoken well; I will see thy face again no more.”
In addition, the CREATOR told the Hebrews to stay inside until dawn on the 14th. They had to burn the entire remaining carcass before dawn and could not go to their tents. If they had stayed with someone else. Notice…
Deuteronomy 16:4,7. And there shall be no leaven seen with thee in all thy borders seven days; neither shall any of the flesh, which thou sacrificest the first day at even, remain all night until the morning. ...7 And thou shalt roast and eat it in the place which the ETERNAL SOVEREIGN shall choose; and thou shalt turn in the morning, and go unto thy tents.
Therefore, Moses did not go see Pharaoh, but Pharaoh sent his servants to see Moses. To read that in the Scriptures…
Exodus 11:8. [Moses speaking] And all these thy [Pharaoh's] servants shall come down unto me [Moses], and bow down unto me [Moses], saying: "Get thee out, and all the people that follow thee; and after that I will go out.” And he went out from Pharaoh in hot anger.
This explains what follows next in Exodus; Pharaoh servants went to Moses:
Exodus 12:30-32. And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt; for there was not a house where there was not one dead. And he called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said: "Rise up, get you forth from among my people, both ye and the Children of Israel; and go, serve ETERNAL, as ye have said. Take both your flocks and your herds, as ye have said, and be gone; and bless me also.”
The spoiling of the Egyptians did not occur in Exodus Chapters 3 or 11; it occurred in Exodus 12. Exodus 3 and 11 only contain the promise of what is going to happen. The spoiling of the Egyptians could not have occurred prior to the "Night of Protection" because the Hebrews were slaves of the Egyptians and slaves just did not go roaming around outside of the slave quarters collecting jewels and gold from their masters. It took the death of the first born on the "Night of Protection" to break the spirit of the Egyptians and bring them to their knees in order for them to allow the Hebrews to leave and to pay them for their service. We will look at Exodus 3 and 11 for the prophecies.
Exodus 3:20-22. And I WILL [future tense] put forth My hand, and smite Egypt with all My wonders which I WILL DO in the midst thereof. And after that he WILL let you go. And I WILL give this people favor in the sight of the Egyptians. And it shall come to pass, that, when ye go, ye shall not go empty; but every woman shall ask of her neighbor, and of her that sojourneth in her house, jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment; and ye shall put them upon your sons, and upon your daughters; and ye shall spoil the Egyptians.
The action associated with the words "SHALL ASK" and "WILL DO" had not happened at that point, but they were to happen in the next few verses. It had not yet happened in Chapters 3 or 11 but would happen later in Chapter 12. Read the next passage in Exodus 11 to see that it also is speaking in future tense and refers to what will happen in Exodus 12. We will start with ETERNAL talking with Moses and telling him WHAT WILL HAPPEN. Let's first look in…
Exodus 11:1-10. And ETERNAL said unto Moses: "Yet one plague more will I bring upon Pharaoh, and upon Egypt; afterwards he WILL let you go hence; when he SHALL let you go, he SHALL surely thrust you out hence altogether. Speak now in the ears of the people, and let them ask every man of his neighbor, and every woman of her neighbor, jewels of silver, and jewels of gold.” And ETERNAL gave the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians. Moreover, the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt, in the sight of Pharaoh's servants, and in the sight of the people. And Moses said: "Thus saith ETERNAL: `About midnight WILL I GO out into the midst of Egypt; and all the firstborn in the land of Egypt SHALL die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sitteth upon his throne, even unto the firstborn of the maidservant that is behind the mill; and all the firstborn of cattle....”
...11:6-7. "And there SHALL be a great cry throughout all the land of Egypt, such as there hath been none like it, nor shall be like it any more. But against any of the Children of Israel shall not a dog whet his tongue, against man or beast; that ye may know how that ETERNAL doth put a difference between the Egyptians and Israel. And all these thy [Pharaoh's] servants SHALL come down unto me [Moses], and bow down unto me, saying: "Get thee out, and all the people that follow thee; and after that I WILL go out.” And he went out from Pharaoh in hot anger.
...9 And ETERNAL said unto Moses: "Pharaoh will not hearken unto you; that My wonders may be multiplied in the land of Egypt:" And Moses and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh; and ETERNAL hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he did not let the Children of Israel go out of his land.
Now let's see if what ETERNAL said would happen / did happen. Note that the spoiling was only prophesied in Chapter 11 but it came to pass in Chapter 12.
Exodus 12:35-36. And the Children of Israel DID according to the word of Moses; and they asked of the Egyptians jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment. And ETERNAL gave the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they [Egyptians] let them [Hebrews] have what they asked. And they [Hebrews] despoiled the Egyptians.”
Thus, we see in Chapter 12 these things happened just as ETERNAL had said in Chapters 3 and 11 would happen.
First we must ask: what is a leavening agent? The Scripture states that the unleavened bread was prepared in haste.
Deuteronomy 16:3. Thou shalt eat no leavened [#H2557] bread with it; seven days shalt thou eat unleavened [#H4682] bread therewith, even the bread of affliction; for in haste didst thou come forth out of the land of Egypt. That thou mayest remember the day when thou camest forth out of the land of Egypt all the days of thy life.
In modern times to make bread the dough is mixed with yeast and allowed time to rise before it is baked. The yeast ferments forming bubbles of carbon dioxide which causes the bread to rise. The clue to what a leavening agent is made from is found in the word haste in the preparation of the bread. When prepared in haste, the bread is not allowed to rise and is therefore unleavened. In ancient times, yeast was not added to the dough as it is today, but the natural yeast spores in the air settled in the dough causing it to rise. In addition, a small portion of the dough could be kept until the next baking to produce what we call "sour dough" bread. Thus, since more time was involved because of not having commercial yeast or leavening agents to add to the dough to hasten rising, the bread prepared in haste was unleavened.
The English word "leavened" comes from the Hebrew word "chametz" (#H2557 Strong's) and it and its root Hebrew word both mean "tasting sour or fermented.” The English word "unleavened" comes from the Hebrew word "matstsah" pronounced "mats-tsaw'" is #H4682 in Strong's and means "sweetness or sweet (i.e. not soured or bittered with yeast) as an unfermented cake or loaf that was eaten during the Night of Protection meal because no leaven was used.”
There are other agents that will cause bubbles in dough and cause bread to rise; these include (but are not limited to) yeast, baking powder, sodium bicarbonate, and cream of tartar. These items and products containing them are classified as "leavening agents" and are to be removed from our premises.
The English word "bread" is an added word to produce the phrase "unleavened bread" and only the words "leavened" and "unleavened" are in the Hebrew. However, the entire Scriptural context of this discussion of seven days of "unleavened bread" is the preparation of some type of food product that is made in haste. Although the point of discussion in the Scriptures is the preparation of bread, some people add to what is stated and include vinegar and alcoholic drinks (i.e. fermented liquids) to the list of things to avoid during these days.
It is a debatable question as to the timing of when the leavened products should be removed from your property (Exodus 12:15). Should they be removed "on" or "by" the 14th? Strong's or Gesenius' is not much help on the preposition to be used. Some translations say "on" and some say "by.” Even in The American Heritage Dictionary, the meanings of the two words overlap. The controversy is cleared up by Scripture stating that…
Deuteronomy 16:4,7. ...there shall be no leaven seen with thee in all thy borders seven days...
Since no leavening is allowed on our property during the seven (7) days of unleavened bread, I have my de-leavening done by the beginning of the 14th day.
One last point concerning leavening and leavened products. Articles of leavening must be gotten rid of not just bagged and taken to the garage and brought back after the Days of Unleavened Bread are completed! The Scriptures say these products are removed from within your borders. You must dispose of them by some method. If you give them to family or friends, you must make sure that you do not eat any thing using them after the 14th. In addition, you must eat some unleavened bread daily for the seven days! To see that in Scripture notice:
Exodus 12:18-20. In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at even, ye SHALL eat unleavened bread, until the one and twentieth day of the month at even. Seven days shall there be no leaven found in your houses; for whosoever eateth that which is leavened, that soul shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he be a sojourner, or one that is born in the land. Ye shall eat nothing leavened; in all your habitations shall ye eat unleavened bread.
Exodus 13:6-7. Seven days thou shalt eat unleavened bread, and in the seventh day shall be a feast to ETERNAL. Unleavened bread shall be eaten throughout the seven days; and there shall no leavened bread be seen with thee, neither shall there be leaven seen with thee, in all thy borders.
For a recap since the one above, here is what we also know:
The next question we have to ask is: "What are you going to do about this information?" What ever you do, it must be done with a clear conscience before the ETERNAL CREATOR our SOVEREIGN. As for me, I will remove leavening by the beginning of the 14th. I will keep seven days of unleavened bread, the Pesach (Night of Protection) followed by six days of the Feast of Unleavened Bread. I will do that as the chart below indicates.
First, find the number on the Hebrew Pesach Time Chart that you want to see the Scripture that applies. Find the number on the list below and read the indicated Scripture.
1. Exodus 12:6,18; Leviticus 23:4-5 - Beginning of the Night of Protection.
2. Exodus 12:18; Deuteronomy 16:4 - Beginning of the 21th at sunset on the 20th.
3. Exodus 12:15,18; 13:6-7; 34:18; Deuteronomy 16:3-4,8 - Eat unleavened bread for 7 days.
4. Exodus 12:15 - Leaven will have been put away by this time.
5. Deuteronomy 16:7-8,20; Leviticus 23:6 - Feast of Unleavened Bread is for 6 days.
6. Exodus 12:6-11; Leviticus 23:5 - Dusk.
7. Exodus 12:12-14,23,27,29 - Death Angel Flies Over.
8. Exodus 12:33-36 - Spoiling of the Egyptians.
9. Exodus 3:20-22; 11:1-10; 10:28-29; 12:10-11,17,23, 30-34,46; Deuteronomy t 16:4,7 - Final Plague.
10. Exodus 12:37-42, 51-13:5; Numbers 33:1-3 - By this time the Egyptians will have been spoiled and Israel now ready to began journey.
11. Exodus 12:23; Deuteronomy 16:4-7 - If any had stayed with others they could now go home.
12. Exodus 12:14-16,26-27; Leviticus 23:6-8 - Night of Protection.
13. Exodus 12:16-17; Leviticus 23:5-6; Numbers 28:16-17 - Sacred Assembly.
14. Exodus 12:15; 13:6; 34:18; Leviticus 23:6-8; Deuteronomy 16:8 - Sacred Assembly.
To see the Scriptures (JPSA 1917) for The Timeline Chart click here.
1. All quoted Scripture will be from the Jewish Publication Society's Tanakh of 1917/1955 2. Gesenius’ Hebrew-Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament, H.W.F. Gesenius, original in 1857. 3. Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible. 4. Webster- Pretermission - to let pass or overlook. 5. Webster- Exemption - immunity. 6. Night of Protection. 7. See our article "The Feast of Booths.”
1. All quoted Scripture will be from the Jewish Publication Society's Tanakh of 1917/1955
2. Gesenius’ Hebrew-Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament, H.W.F. Gesenius, original in 1857.
3. Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible.
4. Webster- Pretermission - to let pass or overlook.
5. Webster- Exemption - immunity.
6. Night of Protection.
7. See our article "The Feast of Booths.”