the house of Israel and the house of Judah.
|"If My people who are called by My name will humble themselves, and pray and seek My face, and turn from their wicked ways, then I will hear from heaven, and will forgive their sin and heal their land." - II Chronicles 7:14 |
Jacob's Pillar Stone
Note: Scriptures are blue.
"The Scriptures are full of references to "stones," both literal and symbolic. One such stone, is identified as the stone upon which the patriarch Jacob rested his head when he dreamed of the heavenly ladder. This stone has not received the attention it deserves from Bible scholars, because they generally assume it was left where Jacob found it.
"However, this is not the case. The stone that Jacob later anointed with oil and declared to be "God's House" (Beth-El) did not remain lost in the wilderness of Luz; it continued to play an important part in the destiny of Jacob's descendants. In the past, such suggestions have been dismissed as fascinating legend and tradition, but there are pertinent historical writings and visible evidence worthy of consideration.
"Is Jacob's stone the "House of God?" Does it exist today? Does it bear witness to "God's" amazing plan for our planet? The questions are puzzling. The answers are startling and throw light on the Bible. The purpose of this booklet 1 is to present the cumulative evidence which reveals the fate of the Bible's most famous "stone."
"The Scripture deals chiefly with that which took place between Jacob and the 'Lord,' as Jacob was making a journey from Beersheba to Padan-aram. Mention of a certain sunset and stones (plural) for pillows seem incidental, but suddenly one of those stones is brought into great distinction. The facts which brought that special stone into such prominence may be quickly read, for the Bible account of them is very short and their true symbolic importance is generally overlooked.
"The veneration of sacred pillars was common in ancient Israel but no where in Scripture has an inanimate object been given such a glorious eminence, or divinely-declared purpose, as that which was bestowed on that "pillow-stone" upon which Jacob rested his head on that certain night. Jacob was so spiritually impressed that, to memorialize the occasion and the place, he blessed the stone on which his head had rested, sanctified it by anointing it with oil and gave it the name "Bethel" ("God's" House). Although Jacob gave the name "Bethel" to the place, or locality, where the Stone was set up, he emphatically declared: "The stone, which I have set for a pillar, shall be "God's" house." [vs. 22]
"Twenty-two years passed, and Jacob was directed by the 'Lord' to return to Bethel. In the interim, Jacob had been blessed not only with great riches but by a knowledge that at that place (Bethel) was his 'God.' On his return, Jacob had a vision, and the 'Lord' again spoke to him, saying, "I am the 'God' of Bethel" (Gen. 31:13). Thus, the 'Lord' associated Himself not only with the place of the vision but with the Bethel Stone, implying that He Himself inspired both the choice of this stone and its name.
"After returning to Bethel, Jacob erected an altar of stones. And again 'God' appeared unto Jacob and blessed him saying, "Thy name is Jacob: thy name shall not be called any more Jacob, but Israel (meaning "sons ruling with 'God'"). And 'God' said unto him, I am 'God' Almighty, be fruitful and multiply; a nation and a company of nations shall be of thee, and kings shall come out of thy loins (Gen. 35:11, 12).
"While the Bible account does not state explicitly that Jacob took the Bethel Stone with him when he journeyed from Bethel, it is hard to imagine that he would have simply left a monument with such remarkable associations to lie in the fields and be lost. Rather, it is most likely that this special Stone would be kept and venerated down through the ages.
"There is Biblical evidence to show that the Bethel Stone was the inheritance of Joseph, committed to the care of the House of Joseph. Jacob blessed each of his twelve sons before he died, in Egypt. But, while he was making the prophecy concerning Joseph and his house (to whom he had just given the "birthright") he stopped in the midst of his prophetic utterances and used the following parenthetical expression: 'from thence is the shepherd, the stone of Israel" (Gen. 49:24).
"Thence," in this instance, is an adverb used as a noun, and is equivalent in value to "that place," or the place to which it refers. The phrase, "from thence," means "out of there, out from thither," (or) "out of that place." The place from whence (present form of the old word thence) the Stone came (Bethel) was part of the inheritance which fell to the House of Joseph when the land of Canaan was divided among the children of Jacob. This suggests that not only Bethel (the city or place) but also Bethel, the pillar-rock was given to the birthright family.
"Approximately 215 years later, at the time of the Exodus, Jacob's descendants (or a large part of them) left Egypt under the leadership of Moses with all their possessions and much spoil besides. Jacob's "anointed" Stone must have gone out of Egypt with them, thereafter, accompanying them through their long forty-year trek through the wilderness.
"The history and movements of Israel's wanderings in the .desert-wilderness is a fascinating story. The 'Lord' continually provided food for the Israelites during these forty years and twice it is recorded the 'Lord' supernaturally provided them with water. The first incident mentioned was when the Israelites were encamped at Rephidem, where there was no water for the people to drink. Without previously selecting one special rock, the 'Lord' said unto Moses: "Behold, I will stand before thee there upon the rock in Horeb, and thou shalt smite the rock, and there shall come water out of it, that the people may drink" (Exodus 17:6). The phrase, "there in Horeb," points out the place where the rock was at the time. If the 'Lord,' when He spoke of the rock, had used the demonstrative form, and said, "that rock," then we should know that He was designating which one, or a certain one not yet selected, but the fact that He said "the rock," indicated to us that He was speaking of a rock with which they were already familiar. It was undoubtedly the Bethel pillar rock, "the shepherd, the Stone of Israel," which had been committed to the keeping of the house of Joseph.
"The second instance was when the people were without water at Kadish, a city in the border of Edom, the area belonging to the descendants of Esau. At that place, the people of Israel were very bitter against Moses and Aaron and said unto them: "And why have ye brought up the congregation of the 'Lord' into this wilderness, that we and our cattle should die there? And wherefore have ye made us to come up out of Egypt, to bring us into this evil place? It is no place of seed, or of figs, or of vine, or of pomegranates; neither is there any water to drink" (Num. 20:4, 5).
Again, the 'Lord' appeared unto Moses, saying: "Take the rod, and gather thou the assembly together, thou and Aaron thy brother, and speak ye unto the rock: before their eyes; and it shall give forth his water, and thou shalt bring forth to them water out of the rock: "so thou shalt give the congregation and their beasts drink" (Num. 20:8).
"In both instances where the 'Lord' provided water from the rock, there is not the slightest indication that there was any selection, or indication of preference for any certain rock in the vicinity of Kadish, or that one was not already chosen, and in their midst. It is clear, also, that at the very first mention of water for the people from this "rock," all that was necessary (as a preparatory measure) was for the 'Lord' to say to Moses, "speak to the rock." Also, when the people were commanded to "gather before the rock," they clearly understood which rock it was, so that in all the great company, no explanations were necessary. Therefore, it must have been among them before this event, and well known to them.
"Artists have depicted Moses standing by a great cliff from which water was pouring, showing the people drinking from the stream. However, this conception of the artist does not picture the actual scene, as described in the Bible. The same name, "the rock" was used at Rephidim and at Kadesh, thus showing the same rock was smitten at each location, although they are geographically many miles apart. Certainly the Israelites did not transport a cliff with them, but they did carry the Stone.
"Jacob's Stone, or rock, was a type of [the Messiah David]. ... For proof, let us go back to the place called "Bethel." There we find that Jacob, after setting up the rock for a pillar, also anointed it with oil, which in sacred symbols is typical[ly done of kings, priests, and some prophets]. According to sacred history, this Bethel Stone is the only single stone that has ever been anointed; making it pre-eminently the "Anointed One." When [King David], the great prototype, came, and was anointed [and received] the Holy Spirit (1 Sam. 16:12-13), He was pre-eminent among men, "the Anointed One."
"Also, concerning this "rock," which accompanied Israel, the 'Lord' could say to Moses, "Speak to the rock." But, on the other hand, Israel also could say, concerning that Divine presence which went with them, "Let us sing unto the rock of our salvation." ...
[With another naming] "Jacob also called the Stone, "The Shepherd of Israel." And there is also a Divine One unto whom Israel prayed, saying, "Give ear, 0 Shepherd of Israel."... Since, with 'God,' names are always characteristic, we would expect this Stone of Israel to be with Israel in all their wanderings. Hence, this "Shepherd"--though it be only a stone--as any other shepherd would do, must go with His flock.
..."In view of "God's" miraculous intervention at their deliverance from Egypt, it should not be difficult to believe that the Children of Israel were supplied with water from that literal Rock, which went with them. It was their Shepherd-rock. Otherwise, how could, Moses, in asking permission for the Israelites to pass through the land of Edom, give assurances to the king of Edom, "...we will not pass through the fields, or through the vineyards, neither will we drink of the water of the wells; we will go by the king's highway; we will not turn to the right nor to the left, until we have passed thy borders" (Num. 20:17). The land they must have traverse was several hundred miles in length and would have taken a considerable length of time. However, Israel could afford to make this proposition, for both their Shepherd-rocks were with them (the literal and the spiritual). They knew that He, who had hitherto furnished them with food and water, would continue to supply them until the end of the journey. Otherwise, Moses would never have made such a promise.
"True, there was a conditional promise made, in which there was a promise to pay for any of the water of Edom which Israel might use. This was made chiefly on account of the cattle which they might not always be able to control when passing by the cool and tempting water pools. During the heat of the day, this might prove to be a difficult task for the drivers; hence, the proviso.
"After forty years of wanderings in the wilderness, the children of Israel entered unto the land of Canaan to establish the United Kingdom of Israel which had been founded at Sinai. A special stone or pillar plays an important part in the building of the House of 'God,' known as "Solomon's Temple." Masonic tradition speaks of a stone called "Jacob's Pillar" (Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, 1921 Vol. II pg. 37 - Waite) which was rejected by the builders. Not only was this stone "in the rough" but it contained a crack which, possibly, could have split the stone in two pieces at any moment. It is further prophetically intimated that early in the building of the Temple the attention of the architects had been incidentally invited to this very stone, for use in the Temple. After inspecting the stone, the builders forthwith condemned it as unfit for any such purpose." 2The reason the stone was not used in the Temple is because (as Mr. Capt pointed out) it is associated with the Messiah as well as the ETERNAL:
Open to me the gates of righteousness; I will go through them, And I will praise [ETERNAL]. This is the gate of [ETERNAL],Through which the righteous shall enter. I will praise You, For You have answered me, And have become my salvation. The stone which the builders rejected Has become the chief cornerstone. This was [ETERNAL]'s doing; It is marvelous in our eyes. This is the day [ETERNAL] has made; We will rejoice and be glad in it. Save now, I pray, O [ETERNAL]; O [ETERNAL], I pray, send now prosperity. Blessed is he who comes in the name of [ETERNAL]! We have blessed you from the house of [ETERNAL]. God is [ETERNAL],And He has given us light; Bind the sacrifice with cords to the horns of the altar. You are my God, and I will praise You; You are my God, I will exalt You. Oh, give thanks to [ETERNAL], for He is good! For His mercy endures forever. (Ps. 118:19-29)
King David--as the Messiah--is the one coming in the name of ETERNAL vs. 26. The Stone is symbolic of him, when he becomes the Messiah at the resurrection and becomes the chief cornerstone vs. 22. How wonderful it will be when King David, as the Messiah builds the third Temple. This action will be marvelous in our eyes and is ETERNAL doing vs. 23-24.
King David finally acted responsibly toward Israel as their faithful Shepherd: "Then David spoke to [ETERNAL] when he saw the angel who was striking the people, and said, "Surely I have sinned, and I have done wickedly; but these sheep, what have they done? Let Your hand, I pray, be against me and against my father's house." (2 Sam. 24:17)
"Thus, "neglected and despised by the builders," it had remained in the Tabernacle. By the close of the seven and a half years of Temple construction the stone had become practically forgotten. It seems always to have been used in Tabernacle worship for some religious purposes, but now that grander provisions had been made at Jerusalem for the ritual ceremony, it was clearly in danger of being set aside. Man had rejected the relic but 'God' had provided otherwise. Just at the moment when the Tabernacle was to be taken down and packed up for the march to the Temple, silence reigning throughout the multitude, this stone appears to have given unmistakable evidence of its own peculiar and inestimable worth.The first attitude of the builders toward this stone was prophetic of the attitude and rejection of King David as the Messiah by a majority of the people of the Nation of the Jews. The nation, at that time, was composed of a remnant of the House of Judah plus other races. That was true then and is still true today. Judaism expects the Messiah to be a mortal human being that does great works. They reject the scriptures that prove without a doubt the Messiah will be the resurrected King David.
"How the stone so suddenly, "became" of specific import, as to strike all concerned with astonishment and admiration, we do not know. We can only conjecture. ... Moses had been directed to "speak" to this very same stone (Num. 90:7-13) and sinned by smiting it as he had at Horeb. This latter time he acted both in wrath and perhaps in pride, saying, "Shall we bring forth"? --what, in reality, 'God' alone could cause to flow. So, if the stone could "hear," why not "speak" upon some particular occasion? ...
"At any rate, to continue Masonic tradition, some remarkable incident occurred then and there at the Tabernacle. Whatever it was, it took place just before the sacred regalia started in procession to their place in the finished Temple of Solomon. The sentence was reversed, the stone could not be left behind to oblivion. Its indisputable identity and undoubted worth was made manifest to all. History is strangely silent and only scantily suggestive of these events and we may only imagine the circumstances of this occurrence and supply the shouts of those who witnessed them: "Lo, this is the Pillow of Jacob--The Dream Miracle Stone! It is the Stone of Israel, and Joseph is its guardian. Let it be borne in honor to the Temple of God!"
"In the coronation of the kings of Israel we find, again, a special stone or pillar playing an important role. When Joash was brought forth and proclaimed the heir of David's Throne and was anointed King, the account states: "And when Athaliah heard the noise of the guard and of the people, she came to the people into the temple of the Lord. And when she looked, behold, the King stood by a pillar, as the manner was" (II Kings 11: 13, 14) In the Revised Standard Version it is rendered, "standing by THE PILLAR, as was their custom," the article "the" denoted a particular pillar, by, or upon, which it was the custom of Israel to crown their kings.
"The Dr. Adam Clark translation reads, "stood on a pillar", which he explains is "The place or throne on which they were accustomed to put their kings when they proclaimed them." There is, in the Second Chronicles 23:13, a recapitulation of the circumstances concerning Joash, which gives the following, "And she looked, and behold, the king stood at the pillar," .again indicating that it was a particular pillar belonging to those who were anointed King
"The Companion Bible, in this instance, gives an alternate rendering as "UPON THE PILLAR". It is reasonable to assume that Joash stood UPON the stone which Jacob had set up, as a pillar, when he made his covenant with God. Israel was familiar with the history of the Bethel Stone and knew it was the "House of God" to Jacob and that it had become the "Guardian Stone" of Israel. Thus, the King could have chosen no more fitting place for making his covenant to restore the law and its administration to Israel. It was a sacred stone and it had witnessed all of the many solemn compacts between God and His people.
"The stone which was refused by the builders of Solomon's Temple did become the "head of the corner" as the pillar or Coronation Stone on which the kings of the House of David were crowned." 3
"What happened to this Coronation Stone when the captivity of Israel took place starting 745 B.C.? The Bible purposely makes little mention of the Stone as such and then only in a secondary way, perhaps to guard against the tendency to make an idol of it. Also, it seems God intended for the identity of the Stone and the people connected with it to be hidden from the world for a time. However, it is logical to assume that the custody of the Stone would remain in the hands of some part of the people of Israel.The book Jacob's Pillar then traces the stone and the King's daughters to Ireland. If interested in the details I urge to buy and read the book (see foot note for address of publisher). However, for our purposes we will now skip forward in history and take up the story again.
"Between 745-721 B.C. we know the northern Ten-Tribed Kingdom of Israel (known as the House of Israel), together with a larger portion of the southern Kingdom of Judah (known as the House of Judah) were taken into Assyrian captivity (II Kings 17:3-6). Archaeological tablets found in the excavations of the Assyrian Royal Library at Nineveh have indicated that a majority of the Israelites escaped. Some traveled around the southern end of the Black Sea into the Danube River Valley and the Carpathian Mountains; others went by way of the Dariel Pass through the Caucasus Mountains, into the Steppes of Southern Russia.
"Confirmation of the escape of Israelites from Assyrian captivity is found in the writings of the Prophet Ezra (Esdras). After the ten tribes (House of Israel) refused the request of King Xerxes to return to Jerusalem to join the remnant of Judah from Babylon, Ezra (Esdras) wrote concerning their movements:
"And whereas thou sawest that he gathered another peaceable multitude unto him; Those are the ten tribes, which were carried away prisoners out of their own land in the time of Osea the king, whom Salmanasar the king of Assyria led away captive, and he carried them over the waters, and so came they unto another land. But they took this counsel among themselves, that they would leave the multitude of the heathen, and go forth into further country, where never mankind dwelt, That they might there keep their statutes, which they never kept in their own land. And they entered in to Euphrates by the narrow passages of the river. For the most High then shewed signs to them, and held still the flood, till they were passed over. For through that country there was a great way to go, namely, of a year and a half: and the same region is called Arsareth" (II Edras 13: 39-45).
"This is in harmony with the following: "I will surely assemble, 0 Jacob, all of thee; I will surely gather the remnant of Israel; I will put them together as the sheep of Bozrah, as the flock in the midst of their fold: they shall make great noise by reason of the multitude of men. The breaker is come up before them: they have broken up, and have passed through the gate, and are gone out by it: and their king shall pass before them, and the 'Lord' on the head of them." (Micah 2:12, 13).
"The clause, "They...have passed through the gate," and the one by Ezra, "They have entered into the narrow passages," are parallel and refer to the same circumstance and place. This "gate," or "narrow passage," which is up among the headwaters of the Euphrates, is known today, as the "Caucasian Pass," or the "Pass of Dariel." Ancient writings sometimes refer to it as the "Pass of Israel." It is at this time that Hosea wrote: "The children of Israel shall abide many days without a king, and without a sacrifice, and WITHOUT AN IMAGE," or as the marginal reading gives it, "WITHOUT A STANDING PILLAR." Young's Exhaustive Concordance, gives, among other definitions of the original Hebrew word, both "Memorial stone" and "pillar." Other authorities give us "pillar-rock" and "pillar-stone" as the correct rendering. All this justifies our conclusion, that the pillar in question is the Bethel Pillar Stone which was used as a Coronation Stone and retained by the royal family which ruled over the remnant of Judah until the overthrow of Zedekiah.
"When Jerusalem was taken by the King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon and the Temple destroyed, there was every probability that the Throne of David would become vacant. Zedekiah, the King of Judah had fled by night but was overtaken in the plains of Jericho where he and his sons were taken captive. Nebuchadnezzar killed all the King's sons. Then, after putting out the eyes of Zedekiah, took him in chains to Babylon where he later died in prison (Jer. 39:4-7). The king's DAUGHTERS were spared and there are several later references to them (Jer. 41:10-17 and Jer. 43:6).
"Zedekiah's reign had lasted only about eleven years and he is considered by most Bible scholars to have been the last king of the Judo-David line to reign over any part of the Israel people. Yet 'God' has said that He would build up David's Throne unto all generations. "then I will establish the throne of thy kingdom upon Israel for ever, as I promised to David thy father, saying, There shall not fail thee a man upon the throne of Israel" (Kings 9:5), and prior to that He declared: "The Scepter shall not depart from Judah this posterity] nor a law-giver from between his feet unto Shiloh come; and unto him [Shiloh] shall the gathering of the people be" (Gen. 49:10).
"Though that Throne ceased in Palestine when Zedekiah died, as a captive in Babylon, there must of necessity be a continuation of that throne. There must be a ruler of the House of David reigning over at least a portion of the House of Israel, forever. Since Zedekiah's sons were killed there were no male heirs to the throne of Judah. However, under Hebrew law (Num. 27:8-11) a daughter would inherit as though she were a son and the right of descent would pass to her male seed, providing she married within her own house (Num. 36). This fact was evidently unknown to Nebuchadnezzar who thought that in slaying all the male heirs to the Throne of David it had been destroyed forever. The King's daughters, in the company of Jeremiah, did escape with a remnant of Judah to the land of Egypt. Jeremiah, with the daughters, found sanctuary with the Milesian (Greek mercenaries) garrison, which according to secular records, was stationed in Tahpanhes, Egypt (Jer. 43: 5-7)." 4
"The modern part of the story from Westminster back to Ireland, rests on a succession of well authenticated Irish, Scottish and English historical documents which may be regarded as practically undisputed. Writers on the subject, quoting from such works as The Chronicles of En, The Annals of the Four Masters, The Annals of Clonmacnoise, etc., locate the Stone originally at Tara, County of Meath, Ireland. Naturally, such early records as these are uncertain as to dates, but from the "MS Cambrensis Eversus" (by Dr. Lynch), published in Latin in 1662 and translated in 1848, the year circa 584 B.C. may be taken as the Tara starting date.Modern records trace the Stone to Scotland and then to England where the Coronation Chair was built around it. All the Kings of Ireland, Scotland, and England have been crowned while sitting or standing upon it.
"Scota was one of the earliest names of Ireland - so named, it was said, from Scota, the "daughter of the Pharaoh" one of the ancient female ancestors of the Milesians. These people were commonly called "Scotti" or "Scots," both terms being frequently used by early Latin historians and poets. ...
"The Chronicles of Scotland by Hector Boece (translated into Scottish by John Bellenden, 1531), tell us ... the story of Gathelus, recording that he left Egypt with his wife (Scota), his friends and a company of Greeks and Egyptians rather that "to abyde ye manifest wengenance of goddis" (reference to "God's" judgment on the remnant that had fled to Egypt to escape Nebuchadnezzar) and, traveling by sea (Mediterranean), after, "lang tyme he landit in ane part of Spayne callit Lusitan" (later called Portingall). After ... peace having been secured, "Gathelus sittand in his chayr of merbel within his citie."
"This chair of "marble" had such fortune and omen that wherever it was found in any land the same land "shall become the native land of the Scots": ...
"The Scots shall brook that realm as native ground
"if words fail not, where'er this chair is found."
"It should be noted that The Students English Dictionary defines "marble" as "any species of calcareous stone susceptible of a good polish." It is reasonable to assume the "marble chair" referred to was the Coronation Stone or the Bethel Stone, still in the hands of the sons (descendants) of Jacob when in the care of Gathelus and his Queen Scota.
"Many of the ancient Irish records, when making reference to an "eastern king's daughter," also mention an old man; "a patriarch, a saint, a prophet," called "Ollam Fodhla" and his scribe-companion called "Simon Brug, Brach, Breack, Barech, Berach," as it is variously spelled. Reportedly, they carried with them many ancient relics. Among these were a harp, an ark or chest, and a stone called, in Gaelic, "Lia-Fail (pronounced Leeah-Fail), meaning "Stone of Fate" or "Hoary of Destiny."
"Tradition asserts that Ollam Fodhla was none other than Jeremiah, the prophet; that the king's daughter was the heir of Zedekiah, the last king of Judah. Simon Brug (Baruch) was Jeremiah's scribe who figures prominently in Biblical history, and the harp was the one belonging to King David. The ark or chest was the Ark of the Convenant. Finally, that the stone, "Lia Fail" was the stone that Jacob anointed with oil at Bethel. ...
"There are many other variations of the story of the Stone being brought from Egypt to Ireland, which when added together present us with a rather confused story. This is understandable when it is realized that the Irish records are compilations at a late date of very early tribal histories. Each of these, written in a tongue difficult to translate, gives its own aspect of the one great story. However, they all agree in the following: The Stone, known as the "Stone of Destiny," came from Spain, and before that, from Egypt, It came in the company of an aged guardian, who was called "Ollam Folla (Hebrew words that mean "revealer," or "prophet"). Eochaidh (Eremhon) with his Queen Tea Tephi was crowned King of Ireland upon the Stone which remained at the Palace of Team-hair Breagh. It was the Coronation Stone of every "Ard-Righ" (High King) of "Eireann" for a period of about 1040 years.
"There is manifestly a mystery surrounding the burial of Tea Tephi. The great "Mergech", the name given the tomb of Tephi was once thought to be Celtic, but is now known to be Hebrew and significant. It designates a place of deposit for treasures, secrets, mysteries, etc. Considering the treasures: Ark of the Covenant, Title Deeds to Palestine and various other relics or Hebrew marks of identity that Jeremiah could have had in his custody, the explicitness with which this tomb of Tephi is described is noticeable. Jeremiah 32: 13-44 records "evidences" which God directs Jeremiah and Baruch to bury.
"The actual burial site of Tea Tephi is unknown today. However, the author has seen a stone at Tara with significant markings which suggests that it marks the grave-vault of Ireland's first Queen of the Davidic line. Perhaps, in due time, the grave will be opened and the royal harp along with other relics will provide the evidence to convince all that God kept His Covenant with David. II Sam. 7:13).
"Tradition has it that the Harp of David was brought to Ireland by Jeremiah and is buried with Tea Tephi at Tara. It is a significant fact that the royal arms of Ireland is a representation of the Harp of David, and has been such for 2500 years. This first mention of the Harp is found in the Dinn Leanches, by Mac Awalgain (B.C. 574).".5
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2. ibid. p 11.
3. ibid. p 13.
4. ibid. p 16.
5. ibid. p 32.